Compact automatic modulation recognition using over-the-air signals and FOS features

Emmanuel Adetiba, Folarin Joseph Olaloye, Abdultaofeek Abayomi, Nasir Faruk, Sibusiso Moyo, Obiseye Obiyemi, Surendra Thakur


The recent deployment of automatic modulation recognition (AMR) for cognitive radio (CR) systems has significantly enhanced spectrum sensing capabilities. The utilization of real-time over-the-air digital radio frequency (RF) data for the development of a digital spectrum sensing model based on the automatic modulation classification (AMC) is presented in this study as a step for incorporating opportunistic spectrum sensing onto the NomadicBTS architecture. Some digital modulation techniques were studied for second-generation (2G) through fourth-generation (4G) technology. The raw RF signal dataset was digitized and curated, while non-complex first-order statistical (FOS) features were used with algorithms based on the Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) to find the best learning algorithm for the generated AMR model. The results show that the developed AMR model has a very high likelihood of correctly classifying signals, with distinct patterns for each of the features of FOS. The results are compared to reveal a least mean square error (MSE) of 0.0131 with a maximum accuracy of 93.5 percent when the model was trained with seventy (70) neurons in the hidden layer using the LM method. The best model's accuracy will allow for the most precise identification of spectrum holes in the bands under consideration.


Automatic modulation recognition; Cognitive radio; NomadicBTS; Software defined radio; Spectrum sensing

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