An improvement for CAST-128 encryption based on magic square and matrix inversion

Suhad Muhajer Kareem, Ayad Al-Adhami, Abdul Monem S. Rahma


This paper presents two image encryption methods which aim to improve the CAST 128-bit algorithm by increasing the security level of encrypted images. The first improvement uses a magic square of order three, while the second improvement uses a 2×2 matrix over GF(P). Both modifications are used in each round of the CAST algorithm, in place of a standard algorithm which uses XOR to increase the correlation between the plaintext and ciphertext. Simulations are carried out in order to evaluate the image encryption system with regard to complexity, time consumption, histogram, information entropy, differential attacks, noise evaluation, adjacent pixels’ correlation index, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) analyses, mean absolute error, and average difference. The experimental results demonstrate that the encryption and decryption time when using the proposed CAST 128-bit algorithm with magic square is less than the time required for the CAST 128-bit algorithm with the matrix. Conversely, the proposed CAST with the matrix is higher than the CAST with the magic square. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results confirm that the two proposed enhancements to CAST perform effectively with sufficient security levels.


Encryption; Histogram; Inverse matrix; Magic square; Matrix

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Bulletin of EEI Stats

Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics (BEEI)
ISSN: 2089-3191, e-ISSN: 2302-9285
This journal is published by the Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science (IAES) in collaboration with Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama (IPMU).