Massive multiple-input multiple-output channel estimation under hardware and channel impairments

Ahmed Hussein Shatti, Ehab Abdul Razzaq Hussein


Hardware problems are the most detrimental issues to channel estimates in wireless communication systems. Because of the enormous number of antennas at the base station (BS) in cellular massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems and because one radio frequency (RF) chain per antenna is required, hardware impairments in such systems will be quite severe. Many research publications have used a quality-cost tradeoff to adjust for RF unit hardware issues. In this study, we have taken a different approach by reducing the error floor caused by impairments in the predicted channels. Here are two steps to remedy the problem. In phase 1, a single active user channel in a single cell was calculated statistically rather than parametrically. In phase 2, a convex optimization approach was used to regularize the estimated channel in phase 1 to reduce error and provide a robust channel estimate. The results of our proposed procedure are measured by the normalized minimum mean squared error (NMSE) versus a range from the effective signal-to-noise ratio, and it shows a significant reduction (nearly one order of magnitude) in the error floor as compared with the conventional one, especially at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the range of (20 dB-30 dB). Simulation results were extracted in MATLAB R2020a.


Channel estimation; Convex optimization; Hardware distortion; Imperfect covariance; Massive MIMO

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